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Abortion Argumentative Essay Sample

Abortion has and still remains one of the most controversial issues in the society. A study of ancient human cultures indicates that the practice has been prevalent for several centuries. Different opinions regarding the morality and ethics of abortion exist in the religious, cultural, medical and legal perspectives. Abortion, intentional or unintentional, ends a pregnancy. Religious views on abortion analyze the practice from the perceptive of protecting the sanctity of life. Cultural concerns on abortion vary among different ethnic groups depending on traditions and customs. Health care professionals analyze abortion depending on the health complications a pregnancy poses to a woman. The legal perspective on abortion concerns proving beyond reasonable doubts that the termination of a pregnancy was necessary. Opponents and proponents of abortion incorporate various cultural, religious, medical and legal reasons to substantiate their views regarding abortion. An analysis of various scenarios illustrates that the justification of abortion is subject to the cause and effects of a pregnancy.

Support for Abortion

The prevalence of sexual assault considerably exposes women to unwanted pregnancies. Pregnancies resulting from rape have adverse psychological effects on the victim. Psychologists assert that constant reminders of unpleasant experiences considerably hamper the process of restoring psychological health (Stange et al. 1126). A child that results from a rape incident constantly reminds the mother of the trauma she underwent. Thus, the child becomes an element that curtails the mother’s healing process. Evidence shows that the two greatest fears for rape victims is the contraction of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) and a pregnancy. In this regard, abortion gives rape victims respite from a continuous reminder of their ordeal.

The period between conception and birth incorporates various medical issues. While most pregnancies develop fully without any severe complications, some women develop life threatening medical complications. Doctors employ medical and non-pharmacological procedures to restore the health of a pregnant mother and the unborn child. However, some complications during pregnancy demand that health care professionals undertake an abortion (Loewy and Roberta 218). Furthermore, evidence on the risks of an unborn child developing severe physical and mental abnormalities may cause a physician to recommend an abortion. The possibility of giving birth to a severally handicapped child raises concerns on the need for an abortion to save the child from immense physical and psychological suffering. Legal restrictions on abortion vary depending on the medical recommendations relating to a pregnancy. Most state laws support medical evidence that proves an abortion served the health needs of a patient. However, the termination of pregnancy outside the scope of health care attracts severe repercussions.

Opposition to Abortion

Religious doctrines describe God as the sole giver and taker of life. In this regard, the human decision to terminate a pregnancy mocks the power of God. The responsibility of human beings is to continue with the work of creation that God initiated. Any action that conflicts with the objectives of God undermines His authority. Promoting abortion encourages abuse of fundamental rights of the unborn child. A fetus bears all the basic characteristics of a human being. Thus, abortion infringes on the unborn child’s right to life. Human beings have a moral and ethical responsibility to safeguard the rights of unborn children considering that they lack the capacity to protect themselves at the early stages of development.

The process of abortion posses numerous health risks to a pregnant woman. Inappropriate procedures may damage the reproductive system hampering any future attempts to bear children. Evidence shows that a significant percentage of women who have undergone multiple abortions lose their ability to bear children due to the unorthodox methods used to terminate pregnancies (Potts et al. 219). Furthermore, unsuccessful abortions may cause physical and psychological health problems with long-term effects.

The prevalence of abortion hampers growth and development by promoting a stagnated or declining population. Abortion threatens the sustenance of the young generation, which is crucial in safeguarding the social, economic and political future of a country. Furthermore, abortion threatens the family unit by creating disputes regarding the use of the practice as a tool for family planning. Unwanted pregnancies are a common phenomenon in most marriages. However, cases of abortion in marriages are minimal because the practice conflicts with family values. Promoting abortion may cause conflicts within families when spouses cannot agree on the need to terminate a pregnancy or allow it to develop fully. When children learn that the parents have the authority to decide on the fate of a pregnancy, they may replicate similar concepts in their marriage lives. Thus, abortion in family settings creates a cycle that promotes a declining appreciation of the value of life.

Another concern by opponents of abortion is that promoting the practice encourages promiscuity and unlawful termination of pregnancies. Individuals engaging in unprotected sex may exploit the medical and legal scope of abortion to avoid unwanted pregnancies. Evidence shows that the greatest percentage of abortions committed annually result from unprotected sex (Steffen 134).

Evaluation of Arguments

An analysis of the arguments against abortion introduces conflicts on the matter of protecting the sanctity of life. Medical complications that put the life of a pregnant woman in danger lower the chances of survival of the unborn child. If doctors were to preserve the sanctity of life, both the mother and the child might die. However, working within a flexible scope of preserving the sanctity of life allows doctors to save the mother’s life, which is a more assured life.

Allowing human suffering, physical or psychological conflicts with religious doctrines that emphasize on unconditional and universal compassion. Discouraging abortion by rape victims aggravates their psychological suffering because they face constant reminder of their experience. Supporting the termination of pregnancies that occur due to sexual assault promotes the theme of unconditional compassion.

Citing medical and legal reasons to engage in abortion can only succeed in a system with loopholes. Strict policies and procedures relating to abortion ensure that only individuals with substantial reasons can terminate a pregnancy. Stringent measures on abortion discourage unwanted pregnancies since it becomes easier to monitor unscrupulous acts relating to abortion. The need for pregnant women to procure abortion secretly has been the main hindrance to the efforts to eliminate unwarranted abortions. The lack of access to regulated facilities that guarantee safe abortion allows individuals operating without licenses to expose pregnant women to numerous risks because of their unregulated practice.

Abortion within health care facilities has positive physical and psychological health effects since the process occurs in a professional setting. Procedures used to terminate a pregnancy observe the code of ethics that require health care professionals to restore health and wellness without compromising on the safety of patients. In addition, counseling sessions, before and after an abortion, mitigate the psychological implications of terminating a pregnancy.

Setting up medical units that facilitate women to procure abortion provides a framework for regulating the practice.


The moral and ethical aspects of abortion vary depending on a variety of religious, social, cultural, medical and legal factors. An analysis of the concerns raised by both the opponents and proponents of abortion illustrates the need for a framework that promotes the benefits of abortion while sealing the loopholes that have transformed abortion into a tool for unwarranted termination of pregnancies. Adoption according to appropriate systems, procedures and policies, will ensure that abortion only occurs in situations whereby the physical and psychological health of a pregnant woman is at stake. In this regard, the practice will promote health and wellness while protecting the rights of unborn children.

PDF version:  Abortion Argumentative Essay Sample

Works Cited

Loewy, Erich H., and Roberta Springer. Textbook of healthcare ethics. 2nd ed.

Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004. Print.

Potts, Malcolm, Peter Diggory, and John Peel. Abortion. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press, 1977. Print.

Stange, Mary Zeiss, Carol K. Oyster, and Jane Sloan. Encyclopedia of women in today’s world.

Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Reference, 2011. Print.

Steffen, Lloyd H.. Ethics and experience: moral theory from just war to abortion. Lanham, Md.:

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2012. Print.